press release
Nadja Neumann

Freshwaters release methane – even when they dry out

Freshwaters are underestimated sources of greenhouse gases. Researchers with IGB have now shown that even drying freshwaters can release considerable amounts of methane. An overview of the causes and magnitudes of methane emissions from freshwaters and an outlook on future developments in climate change make this evident: cleaner waters and more moorland, please.

Water bodies will increasingly release greenhouse gases under climate change. | Photo: Pexels from Pixabay

Methane is produced when organic material decomposes in the absence of oxygen. It can be released for example during the mining of coal, oil or natural gas. It is produced in cows’ stomachs – but also in inland waters and oceans.

There are several different methane production processes in water bodies

"Among the types of freshwaters that release greenhouse gases, reservoirs and lakes are major emitters," explained IGB researcher Professor Hans-Peter Grossart. "This is because organic material from dead plants and animals sinks to the oxygen-poor water bottom of lakes and reservoir more than it sinks in flowing waters. This methane release is intensified by higher temperatures. In small gas bubbles, the methane then rises from the bottom to the water surface and thus enters the atmosphere."

For a long time, researchers assumed that methane is only formed in water bodies where there is no oxygen. "Recent studies show that this greenhouse gas is also produced in the oxygen-rich water column: for example, various phytoplankton species – cyanobacteria, diatoms and haptophytes – emit methane during their photosynthesis," said IGB researcher Dr Mina Bizic, who compiled the knowledge on methane formation by phytoplankton in a scientific article.

Methane is also produced on dry sediment

Methane is even produced where there is no water at all: water bodies that are drying up are known to be a source of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. However, until now little was known about whether and how much methane is released from these areas. A research team led by Radboud University in the Netherlands has estimated global methane emissions for drying areas of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and rivers in different climate zones. The researchers also determined the environmental factors that control these emissions.

Hans-Peter Grossart who was involved in the study stated: "Methane emissions from dry inland waters were consistently higher than emissions measured in adjacent soils on slopes in all climate zones and in all aquatic systems except streams. "Globally, dry inland waters emit 2.7 million tons of methane per year, according to the projections, and emissions are likely to increase.

The type of water body itself and the climate zone had no influence on the amount of methane released. The content of organic matter in the bottom of the water body in combination with the local temperature and the humidity were the significant influencing factors. Particularly high amounts of methane are produced at the beginning of the drying process and during the so-called ridge-flush – the moment when water comes back onto the drained area, for example, due to heavy rainfall.

Higher methane emissions as a consequence of climate change

Climate change processes could further drive methane emissions. For one thing, water bodies are getting warmer. In addition, the oxygen content in lakes is decreasing worldwide. Hans-Peter Grossart was involved in a Nature study that quantified oxygen depletion for 400 lakes in different climate zones: On average, the oxygen content of the water bodies studied fell by 5.5 per cent at the surface and by 18.6 per cent in the deep zone over the last 40 years.

"Phytoplankton will also emit more methane in the future, simply because more of it will be present in water bodies," predicted Mina Bizic. This is because increasing nutrient loads and warming of water bodies are considered the main causes of recent increases in phytoplankton blooms. In addition, phytoplankton blooms can increase the occurrence of oxygen-free, so-called dead zones. This, in turn, boosts classical methane formation under oxygen depletion.

"Methane releases from dried-up stretches will also increase as a result of more frequent extreme weather events – drought and heavy rainfall – because it is precisely during these changes that a particularly large amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted," added Hans-Peter Grossart.

What can be done? Cleaner waters and more peatlands, please!

To keep methane formation from water bodies in check despite climate change, measures to improve water quality help. "If fewer nutrients are introduced into water bodies, less organic material is formed. In addition, less phytoplankton blooms will occur", said Mina Bizic.

Measures that keep water in the landscape and stabilise groundwater are also helpful, because many lakes are fed by groundwater. So, water bodies are drying-up, not only because of increased evaporation, but often also because of falling groundwater levels. The creation of wetlands and peatlands ensures that both water deficiencies and water surplus will be compensated. Peatlands have another advantage: "An ecologically intact peatland acts as a long-term sink for carbon. If it dries out, greenhouse gases are released

A drained bog releases an average of 15 tonnes of CO2 per hectare per year. In a semi-natural peatland, methane is definitely produced. However, the methane release from a drained peatland is usually higher - also due to the high methane release from the numerous drainage ditches. peatland protection is therefore always climate protection," explained Dr. Dominik Zak, guest researcher at IGB and peatland researcher at Aarhus University in Denmark.

Selected publications
March 2022
José R. Paranaíba; Ralf Aben; Nathan Barros; Gabrielle Quadra; Annika Linkhorst; André M. Amado; Soren Brothers; Núria Catalán; Jason Condon; Colin M. Finlayson; Hans-Peter Grossart; Julia Howitt; Ernandes S. Oliveira Junior; Philipp S. Keller; Matthias Koschorreck; Alo Laaso; Catherine Leigh; Rafael Marcé; Raquel Mendonça; Claumir C. Muniz; Biel Obrador; Gabriela Onandia; Diego Raymundo; Florian Reverey; Fábio Roland; Eva-Ingrid Rõõmo; Sebastian Sobek; Daniel von Schiller; Haijun Wang; Sarian Kosten

Cross-continental importance of CH4 emissions from dry inland-waters

Science of the Total Environment. - 814(2022), Art. 151925
Environmental change
January 2022
Stephen F. Jane; Gretchen J.A. Hansen; Benjamin M. Kraemer; Peter R. Leavitt; Joshua L. Mincer; Rebecca L. North; Rachel M. Pilla; Jonathan T. Stetler; Craig E. Williamson; R. Iestyn Woolway; Lauri Arvola; Sudeep Chandra; Curtis L. DeGasperi; Laura Diemer; Julita Dunalska; Oxana Erina; Giovanna Flaim; Hans-Peter Grossart; K. David Hambright; Catherine Hein; Josef Hejzlar; Lorraine L. Janus; Jean-Philippe Jenny; John R. Jones; Lesley B. Knoll; Barbara Leoni; Eleanor Mackay; Shin-Ichiro S. Matsuzaki; Chris McBride; Dörthe C. Müller-Navarra; Andrew M. Paterson; Don Pierson; Michela Rogora; James A. Rusak; Steven Sadro; Emilie Saulnier-Talbot; Martin Schmid; Ruben Sommaruga; Wim Thiery; Piet Verburg; Kathleen C. Weathers; Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer; Kiyoko Yokota; Kevin C. Rose

Widespread deoxygenation of temperate lakes

Nature. - 594(2021), 66–70
Environmental change
October 2021
J. Kreyling; F. Tanneberger; F. Jansen; S. van der Linden; C. Aggenbach; V. Blüml, J. Couwenberg; W-J Emsens; H. Joosten; A. Klimkowska; W. Kotowski; L. Kozub; B. Lennartz; Y. Liczner; H. Liu; D. Michaelis; C. Oehmke; K. Parakenings; E. Pleyl; A. Poyda; S. Raabe; M. Röhl; K. Rücker; A. Schneider; J. Schrautzer; C. Schröder; F. Schug; E. Seeber; F. Thiel; S. Thiele; B. Tiemeyer; T. Timmermann; T. Urich; R. van Diggelen; K. Vegelin; E. Verbruggen; M. Wilmking; N. Wrage-Mönnig; L. Wołejko; D. Zak; G. Jurasinski

Rewetting does not return drained fen peatlands to their old selves

Nature Communications. - 12(2021), Art. 5693
Use and management
Contact person

Mina Bizic

Eigene Stelle (DFG)
Research group
Aquatic Microbial Ecology

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